A twisting or wrenching effect, or moment, exerted by a force acting at a distance on a body, equal to the force multiplied by the perpendicular distance between the line of action of the force, and the center of rotation at which it is exerted.
A force, which tends to produce rotation. The measurement of torque is based on the fundamental law of the lever.
Basic Torque Formula L (length) x F (force) = T (torque)
Example: A two foot lever at a right angle to the fastener with 200 pounds at the end will produce 400 foot/pounds of torque. Torque Formula: L x F = T
What are we trying to achieve with a torque wrench? Answer: Proper Clamping Force Torque is expressed in commonly used units of measurement such as: in. lbs. = inch pounds in. ozs. = inch ounces ft. lbs. = foot pounds Nm = Newton meter cNm = Centi Newton meter
Torque and Clamping Force Controlling the torque applied in tightening threaded fasteners is the most commonly used method for the application of clamping force. There are many factors which may affect the relationship between torque and clamping force of threaded fasteners. Some of these are: the type of lubricant used on the threads, the material from which the bolt and nut are made, the type of washers used, the class and finish of threads and various other factors. It is not possible to establish a definite relationship between torque and clamping force which will be applicable for all conditions.
Torque Versus Clamping Force
Only a small part of the torque applied to a fastener contributes to clamping force. The remaining, as much as 90% of the total applied torque, is used to overcome friction under the fastener head (or between nut and washer) and friction in thread engagement.
TORQUE Head Friction: 45% - 55% Thread Friction: 35% - 45% Clamping Force: 10% TORQUE 1. Head Friction 2. Thread Friction 3. Clamping Force
Easy-to-use Torque Conversion Table
To Convert From To Multiply by
in. oz. in.lb. 0.0625 in. lb. in.oz. 16 in. lb. ft.lb. 0.08333 in. lb. cmkg 1.1519 in. lb. mkg 0.011519 in. lb. Nm 0.113 in. lb. dNm 1.13 ft. lb. in.lb. 12 ft. lb. mkg 0.1382 ft. lb. Nm 1.356 dNm in. lb. 0.885 dNm Nm 0.10 Nm dNm 10 Nm cmkg 10.2 Nm mkg 0.102 Nm in. lb. 8.85 Nm ft. lb. 0.7376 cmkg in. lb. 0.8681 cmkg Nm 0.09807 mkg in. lb. 86.81 mkg ft. lb. 7.236 mkg Nm 9.807
Common Torque Abbreviations
Foot Pounds 每 ft. lbs. Inch Pounds 每 in. lbs. Inch Ounces 每 in. ozs. Newton Meter 每 Nm Centi-Newton Meter 每 cNm Meter Kilogram 每 Mkg
Torque Conversion Calculators
To convert torque values for other units, click on the unit you are starting with below and a popup window calculator will provide you a quick way to make the conversions:
Inch Ounces Inch Pounds Foot Pounds milli Newton metres centi Newton metres deci Newton metres Newton metres kilogram centimeters kilogram meters
Torque Wrench Safety
These precautions should always be taken when using any torque wrench to avoid possible injury:
Read instruction manual completely before using torque wrench.
Safety glasses or goggles should be worn at all times when using any hand tool.
Always pull, DO NOT PUSH, to apply torque and adjust your stance to prevent a fall.
A "cheater bar" should NEVER be used on a torque wrench to apply excess leverage.
Do not use with sockets or fasteners showing wear or cracks.
Ratchet mechanism may slip or break if dirty, mismatched or worn parts are used.
Make sure direction lever is fully engaged.
Torque Wrench Usage
All mechanical torque wrenches are calibrated from 20% to 100% of full scale, therefore, they should never be used below or above those limits
To determine which torque wrench capacity is best suited for an application, many factors must be considered. However, as a recommendation, use a torque wrench in the middle 50% of the overall capacity of the tool. This will result in longer tool life, ease of use for the operator and increased accuracy from "clicker" type torque wrenches
Always grasp handle firmly in the center of the grip
Approach final torque slowly and evenly
Stop pulling wrench immediately when target torque is reached
Never use a torque wrench to break fasteners loose
Should be cleaned and stored properly
Should always be stored at it＊s lowest torque setting
Wrenches should be re-calibrated if dropped. Should never be used in excess of it＊s capacity
Torque wrenches should be "exercised" a minimum of three times at 100% of full scale before use
The wrench selected should be calibrated in the same torque units that are specified
Use of a "cheater bar" will result in an inaccurate reading and can possibly damage the wrench
Torque wrenches will last longer if reasonable care is taken. Always unwind handle to the lowest setting after each use. Do not attempt to lubricate the internal torque mechanism. Clean torque wrench by wiping, do not immerse. The wrench should be sent to a qualified calibration lab once every year or every 5000 cycles for re-calibration
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